• CagA is a protein that is encoded by the cagA gene in certain Helicobacter pylori. Such Helicobacter pylori are described as cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori (Type I). 
  • CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori are associated with severe clinical outcomes. 
  • CagA is transported to host cells (gastric epithelial cells) by Type 4 secretory system (T4SS) by CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains. 
  • Once inside the host cells, CagA is localized to the host cell membrane. It may also undergo tyrosine phosphorylation by host kinases (Src and Abl family of tyrosine kinases).
  • Both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated CagA are shown to interact with several host proteins which can lead to severe dysregulation of signaling pathways and physiology of host cells.
  • One of the host proteins SH2 domain-containing phosphatase SHP-2 has been shown to be necessary for the induction of Hummingbird phenotype in gastric epithelial cell line AGS.

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