Molecular cloning or DNA cloning refers to a set of methods that involve in generating identical copies of a piece of DNA (usually a gene or important genomic sequence) by incorporating it to another piece of DNA (referred to as cloning vector) that has capability to replicate and generate identical copies when introduced in a suitable host. In general terms, creating a recombinant DNA molecule by ligating a piece of DNA into a cloning vector is called molecular cloning.
Molecular cloning came into existence after the discovery of restriction enzymes and dominated molecular biology and the major way to generate particular DNA fragments in large quantities until the discovery of polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
- Easy manipulation of DNA of interest
- Generating identical copies of a piece of a DNA
- Alteration of gene expression in living system