- Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs), such as p21WAF1, p27KIP1, p16INK4a, or p18INK4c, has been found upregulated in most cell types when cells were cultured in absence of anchorage. Elevated expressions of CKIs appear to suppress proliferation in suspension culture.
- Anchorage-independent cells appear to develop a mechanism to sequester the p21 in the cytoplasm, thus, escape from the inhibitory effect of p21.
- Elevated expression of p21 can also support the anchorage-independent growth by regulating the expression of E-cadherin.
- p21 is required for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenic potential of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells.
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