Element: Phosphorus (P)

Element (Atom) NamePhosphorus
Physical state at room temperatureSolid
Element ClassificationNon-metal
Group NamePnictogen
Period Number (Periodic table) 3
Group number (Periodic table)15
Atomic number15
Atomic weight30.973761998 (Ref: Jlab-ele015, ciaaw-phosphorus, Nist-15)
30.97 (Ref: Lanl-15)
Atomic Radius180 pm (Van der Waals) (Ref: Lanl-15)
Density1.82 g/cm3 (Ref: Jlab-ele015)
Melting point44.15°C (Ref: Jlab-ele015)
44.15 (white phosphorus) (Ref: Lanl-15)
Boiling point280.5°C (Ref: Jlab-ele015)
280.5 (white phosphorus) (Ref: Lanl-15)
Electron shell configuration1s2 
2s2 2p6 
3s2 3p3
Oxidation States+5, +3, -3 (Ref: Jlab-ele015)
5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3 ​(a mildly acidic oxide) (Ref: Lanl-15)
Ionization Energy10.487 eV (Ref: Jlab-ele015)
10.486686  eV (Ref: Nist-15)
Number of Stable Isotopes1
InChIInChI=1S/P (Ref: Pubchem-15)


  • Jlab-ele015: https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele015.html
  • Lanl-15: https://periodic.lanl.gov/15.shtml
  • ciaaw-phosphorus: https://www.ciaaw.org/phosphorus.htm
  • Nist-15 : https://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/Elements/elInfo.pl?element=15
  • Pubchem-15: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/15
  • science.co.il: https://www.science.co.il/elements/

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